Sunday, 30 September 2012

Java - Arrays in Java

Array: Array is the most important thing in any programming language. By definition, array is the static memory allocation. It allocates the memory for the same data type in sequence. It contains multiple values of same types. It also store the values in memory at the fixed size. Multiple types of arrays are used in any programming language such as: one - dimensional, two - dimensional or can say multi - dimensional. 

Declaration of an array:  
int num[]; or int num = new int[2];
Some times user declares an array and it's size simultaneously. You may or may not be define the size in the declaration time. such as:
int num[] = {50,20,45,82,25,63}; 

In this program we will see how to declare and implementation. This program illustrates that the array working way. This program takes the numbers present in the num[] array in unordered list and prints numbers in ascending order. In this program the sort() function of the java.util.*; package is using to sort all the numbers present in the num[] array. The Arrays.sort() automatically sorts the list of number in ascending order by default. This function held the argument which is the array name num.

Here is the code of the program:-

import java.util.*;

public class  array{
  public static void main(String[] args){
  int num[] = {50,20,45,82,25,63};
  int l = num.length;
  int i,j,t;
  System.out.print("Given number : ");
  for (i = 0;i < l;i++ ){
  System.out.print("  " + num[i]);
  System.out.print("Accending order number : ");
    for(i = 0;i < l;i++){
  System.out.print("  " + num[i]);

Output of the program:


C:\chandan>java array
Given number : 50 20 45 82 25 63

Ascending order number : 20 25 45 50 63 82

Java - Basic Data Types

Variables are nothing but reserved memory locations to store values. This means that when you create a variable you reserve some space in memory.

Based on the data type of a variable, the operating system allocates memory and decides what can be stored in the reserved memory. Therefore, by assigning different data types to variables, you can store integers, decimals, or characters in these variables.

There are two data types available in Java:

Primitive Data Types

Reference/Object Data Types

Primitive Data Types:
There are eight primitive data types supported by Java. Primitive data types are predefined by the language and named by a key word. Let us now look into detail about the eight primitive data types.


Byte data type is a 8-bit signed two's complement integer.

Minimum value is -128 (-2^7)

Maximum value is 127 (inclusive)(2^7 -1)

Default value is 0

Byte data type is used to save space in large arrays, mainly in place of integers, since a byte is four times smaller than an int.

Example : byte a = 100 , byte b = -50


Short data type is a 16-bit signed two's complement integer.

Minimum value is -32,768 (-2^15)

Maximum value is 32,767(inclusive) (2^15 -1)

Short data type can also be used to save memory as byte data type. A short is 2 times smaller than an int

Default value is 0.

Example : short s= 10000 , short r = -20000


Int data type is a 32-bit signed two's complement integer.

Minimum value is - 2,147,483,648.(-2^31)

Maximum value is 2,147,483,647(inclusive).(2^31 -1)

Int is generally used as the default data type for integral values unless there is a concern about memory.

The default value is 0.

Example : int a = 100000, int b = -200000


Long data type is a 64-bit signed two's complement integer.

Minimum value is -9,223,372,036,854,775,808.(-2^63)

Maximum value is 9,223,372,036,854,775,807 (inclusive). (2^63 -1)

This type is used when a wider range than int is needed.

Default value is 0L.

Example : int a = 100000L, int b = -200000L


Float data type is a single-precision 32-bit IEEE 754 floating point.

Float is mainly used to save memory in large arrays of floating point numbers.

Default value is 0.0f.

Float data type is never used for precise values such as currency.

Example : float f1 = 234.5f


double data type is a double-precision 64-bit IEEE 754 floating point.

This data type is generally used as the default data type for decimal values. generally the default choice.

Double data type should never be used for precise values such as currency.

Default value is 0.0d.

Example : double d1 = 123.4


boolean data type represents one bit of information.

There are only two possible values : true and false.

This data type is used for simple flags that track true/false conditions.

Default value is false.

Example : boolean one = true


char data type is a single 16-bit Unicode character.

Minimum value is '\u0000' (or 0).

Maximum value is '\uffff' (or 65,535 inclusive).

Char data type is used to store any character.

Example . char letterA ='A'

Reference Data Types:
Reference variables are created using defined constructors of the classes. They are used to access objects. These variables are declared to be of a specific type that cannot be changed. For example, Employee, Puppy etc.

Class objects, and various type of array variables come under reference data type.

Default value of any reference variable is null.

A reference variable can be used to refer to any object of the declared type or any compatible type.

Example : Animal animal = new Animal("giraffe");

Java Literals:
A literal is a source code representation of a fixed value. They are represented directly in the code without any computation.

Literals can be assigned to any primitive type variable. For example:

byte a = 68;
char a = 'A'
byte, int, long, and short can be expressed in decimal(base 10),hexadecimal(base 16) or octal(base 8) number systems as well.

Prefix 0 is used to indicates octal and prefix 0x indicates hexadecimal when using these number systems for literals. For example:

int decimal = 100;
int octal = 0144;
int hexa =  0x64;
String literals in Java are specified like they are in most other languages by enclosing a sequence of characters between a pair of double quotes. Examples of string literals are:

"Hello World"
"\"This is in quotes\""
String and char types of literals can contain any Unicode characters. For example:

char a = '\u0001';
String a = "\u0001";
Java language supports few special escape sequences for String and char literals as well. They are:

Notation Character represented
\n Newline (0x0a)
\r Carriage return (0x0d)
\f Formfeed (0x0c)
\b Backspace (0x08)
\s Space (0x20)
\t tab
\" Double quote
\' Single quote
\\ backslash
\ddd Octal character (ddd)
\uxxxx Hexadecimal UNICODE character (xxxx)

Java Basic Operators

Java provides a rich set of operators to manipulate variables. We can divide all the Java operators into the following groups:

  • Arithmetic Operators
  • Relational Operators
  • Bitwise Operators
  • Logical Operators
  • Assignment Operators
  • Misc Operators

The Arithmetic Operators:
Arithmetic operators are used in mathematical expressions in the same way that they are used in algebra. The following table lists the arithmetic operators:

Assume integer variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then:

Show Examples

Operator Description Example
+ Addition - Adds values on either side of the operator A + B will give 30
- Subtraction - Subtracts right hand operand from left hand operand A - B will give -10
* Multiplication - Multiplies values on either side of the operator A * B will give 200
/ Division - Divides left hand operand by right hand operand B / A will give 2
% Modulus - Divides left hand operand by right hand operand and returns remainder B % A will give 0
++ Increment - Increase the value of operand by 1 B++ gives 21
-- Decrement - Decrease the value of operand by 1 B-- gives 19
The Relational Operators:
There are following relational operators supported by Java language

Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then:

Show Examples

Operator Description Example
== Checks if the value of two operands are equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true. (A == B) is not true.
!= Checks if the value of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true. (A != B) is true.
> Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (A > B) is not true.
< Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (A < B) is true.
>= Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (A >= B) is not true.
<= Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (A <= B) is true.
The Bitwise Operators:
Java defines several bitwise operators which can be applied to the integer types, long, int, short, char, and byte.

Bitwise operator works on bits and perform bit by bit operation. Assume if a = 60; and b = 13; Now in binary format they will be as follows:

a = 0011 1100

b = 0000 1101


a&b = 0000 1100

a|b = 0011 1101

a^b = 0011 0001

~a  = 1100 0011

The following table lists the bitwise operators:

Assume integer variable A holds 60 and variable B holds 13 then:

Show Examples

Operator Description Example
& Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands. (A & B) will give 12 which is 0000 1100
| Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in eather operand. (A | B) will give 61 which is 0011 1101
^ Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. (A ^ B) will give 49 which is 0011 0001
~ Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the efect of 'flipping' bits. (~A ) will give -60 which is 1100 0011
<< Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. A << 2 will give 240 which is 1111 0000
>> Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. A >> 2 will give 15 which is 1111
>>> Shift right zero fill operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand and shifted values are filled up with zeros. A >>>2 will give 15 which is 0000 1111
The Logical Operators:
The following table lists the logical operators:

Assume boolean variables A holds true and variable B holds false then:

Show Examples

&&Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non zero then then condition becomes true.(A && B) is false.
||Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands are non zero then then condition becomes true.(A || B) is true.
!Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true then Logical NOT operator will make false.!(A && B) is true.
The Assignment Operators:
There are following assignment operators supported by Java language:

Show Examples

=Simple assignment operator, Assigns values from right side operands to left side operandC = A + B will assigne value of A + B into C
+=Add AND assignment operator, It adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operandC += A is equivalent to C = C + A
-=Subtract AND assignment operator, It subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operandC -= A is equivalent to C = C - A
*=Multiply AND assignment operator, It multiplies right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operandC *= A is equivalent to C = C * A
/=Divide AND assignment operator, It divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operandC /= A is equivalent to C = C / A
%=Modulus AND assignment operator, It takes modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operandC %= A is equivalent to C = C % A
<<=Left shift AND assignment operatorC <<= 2 is same as C = C << 2
>>=Right shift AND assignment operatorC >>= 2 is same as C = C >> 2
&=Bitwise AND assignment operatorC &= 2 is same as C = C & 2
^=bitwise exclusive OR and assignment operatorC ^= 2 is same as C = C ^ 2
|=bitwise inclusive OR and assignment operatorC |= 2 is same as C = C | 2
Misc Operators
There are few other operators supported by Java Language.

Conditional Operator ( ? : ):

Conditional operator is also known as the ternary operator. This operator consists of three operands and is used to evaluate boolean expressions. The goal of the operator is to decide which value should be assigned to the variable. The operator is written as :

variable x = (expression) ? value if true : value if false
Following is the example:

public class Test {
   public static void main(String args[]){
      int a , b;
      a = 10;
      b = (a == 1) ? 20: 30;
      System.out.println( "Value of b is : " +  b );

      b = (a == 10) ? 20: 30;
      System.out.println( "Value of b is : " + b );
This would produce following result:

Value of b is : 30
Value of b is : 20

instanceOf Operator:

This operator is used only for object reference variables. The operator checks whether the object is of a particular type(class type or interface type). instanceOf operator is wriiten as:

( Object reference variable ) instanceOf  (class/interface type)
If the object referred by the variable on the left side of the operator passes the IS-A check for the class/interface type on the right side then the result will be true. Following is the example:

String name = = 'James';
boolean result = name instanceOf String;  
// This will return true since name is type of String
This operator will still return true if the object being compared is the assignment compatible with the type on the right. Following is one more example:

class Vehicle {}

public class Car extends Vehicle {
   public static void main(String args[]){
      Vehicle a = new Car();
      boolean result =  a instanceof Car;
      System.out.println( result);
This would produce following result:

Precedence of Java Operators:
Operator precedence determines the grouping of terms in an expression. This affects how an expression is evaluated. Certain operators have higher precedence than others; for example, the multiplication operator has higher precedence than the addition operator:

For example x = 7 + 3 * 2; Here x is assigned 13, not 20 because operator * has higher precedenace than + so it first get multiplied with 3*2 and then adds into 7.

Here operators with the highest precedence appear at the top of the table, those with the lowest appear at the bottom. Within an expression, higher precedenace operators will be evaluated first.

Category Operator Associativity 
Postfix () [] . (dot operator)Left to right 
Unary ++ - - ! ~Right to left 
Multiplicative  * / % Left to right 
Additive  + - Left to right 
Shift  >> >>> <<  Left to right 
Relational  > >= < <=  Left to right 
Equality  == != Left to right 
Bitwise AND Left to right 
Bitwise XOR Left to right 
Bitwise OR Left to right 
Logical AND && Left to right 
Logical OR || Left to right 
Conditional ?: Right to left 
Assignment = += -= *= /= %= >>= <<= &= ^= |= Right to left 
Comma Left to right 

Java virtual machine (JVM) Architecture

JVM is the heart of any Java based Application Server. We face most of the issues deu to incorrect JVM tunning. It is very important to understand the Overall architecture of the JVM in order to trouble shoot different JVM tunning related issues.Here we are going to discuss the Architecture and the Major parts of a Java Process And the Java Heap Division.
The Following Diagram is just a basic overview of a Java Process in a 2 GB process Size Machine. Usually in 32 bit Windows Operating Systems the default process size will be 2 GB (In Unix based 64 bit operating Systems it can be 4GB or more). So i draw the following Diagram of Java Process to explain the Java Process partitions in a 2Gb process size machine.

  • Java Process Architecture Diagram

In the above diagram we will find different partitions of a Java Process. Please compare the above diagram with below descriptions.
1). Just for Example we can see that Process Size is 2048 MB (2GB)
2). The Java Heap Size is 1024MB (means 1GB)   -Xmx1024m
3). Native Space = ( ProcessSize – MaxHeapSize – MaxPermSize) It means around 768 MB of Native Space.
4). MaxPermSpace is around -XX:MaxPermSize=256m
5). Young Generation Space is around    40% of Maximum Java Heap.

What Are these Different Parts?

  • Eden Space:

Eden Space is a Part of Java Heap where the JVM initially creates any objects, where most objects die and quickly are cleanedup by the minor Garbage Collectors (Note: Full Garbage Collection is different from Minor Garbage Collection). Usually any new objects created inside a Java Method go into Eden space and the objects space is reclaimed once the method execution completes. Where as the Instance Variables of a Class usually lives longer until the Object based on that class gets destroyed. When Eden fills up it causes a minor collection, in which some surviving objects are moved to an older generation.
  • Survivor Spaces:

Eden Sapce has two Survivor spaces. One survivor space is empty at any given time. These Survivor Spaces serves as the destination of the next copying collection of any living objects in eden and the other survivor space.
The parameter SurvivorRatio can be used to tune the size of the survivor spaces.
-XX:SurvivorRatio=6 sets the ratio between each survivor space and eden to be 1:6
If survivor spaces are too small copying collection overflows directly into the tenured generation.
Young Generation: (-XX:MaxNewSize)

Till JDK1.3 and 1.4 we used to set the Young Generation Size using -XX:MaxNewSize. But from JDK1.4 onwards we set the YoungGeneration size using (-Xmn) JVM option.
Young Generation size is controlled by NewRatio.  It means setting -XX:NewRatio=3 means that the ratio between the Old Generation and the Young Generation is  1:3
Similarly -XX:NewRatio=8 means that 8:1 ratio of tenured and young generation.
NewRatio: NewRatio is actually the ratio between the (YoungGenaration/Old Generations) has default values of 2 on Sparc , 12 on client Intel, and 8 everywhere else.
NOTE: After JDK 1.4 The Young Generation Size can be set using  (-Xmn) as well.
Virtual Space-1: (MaxNewSize – NewSize)

The First Virtual Space is actually shows the difference between the -XX:NewSize and -XX:MaxNewSize.  Or we can say that it is basically a difference between the Initial Young Size and the Maximum Young Size.
Java Heap Area: (-Xmx and -Xms)

Java Heap is a Memory area inside the Java Process which holds the java objects.  Java Heap is a combination of Young Generation Heap and Old Generation Heap. We can set the Initial Java Heap Size using -Xms JVM parameter similarly if we want to set the Maximum Heap Size then we can use -Xmx JVM parameter to define it.

-Xmx1024m —> Means Setting the Maximum limit of Heap as 1 GB
-Xms512m —> Means setting Java Heap Initial Size as 512m
NOTE-1): It is always recommended to set the Initial and the Maximum Heap size values as same for better performance.
NOTE-2): The Theoretical limitation of Maximum Heap size for a 32 bit JVM is upto 4GB. Because of the Memory Fragmentation, Kernel Space Addressing, Swap memory usages and the Virtual Machine Overheads are some factors JVM does not allow us to allocate whole 4GB memory for Heap in a 32 bit JVM. So usually on 32-bit Windows Operating Systems the Maximum can be from 1.4 GB to 1.6 GB.
If we want a Larger memory allocation according to our application requirement then we must choose the 64-bit operating systems with 64 bit JVM. 64-bit JVM provides us a larger address space. So we can have much larger Java Heap  with  the increased number of Threads allocation area. Based on the Nature of your Operating system in a 64 bit JVM you can even set the Maximum Heap size upto 32GB.
Example:        -Xms32g -Xmx32g -Xmn4g
Virtual Space-2: (MaxHeapSize – InitialHeapSize)

The Second Virtual Space is actually the Difference between the Maximum Heap size (-Xmx)and the Initial Heap Size(-Xms). This is called as virtual space because initially the JVM will allocate the Initial Heap Size and then according to the requirement the Heap size can grow till the MaxHeapSize.
  • PermGen Space: (-XX:MaxPermSize)

PermGen is a non-heap memory area where the Class Loading happens and the JVM allocates spaces for classes, class meta data,  java methods and the reference Objects here. The PermGen is independent from the Heap Area. It can be resized according to the requirement using -XX:MaxPermSize and -XX:PermSize  JVM Options. The Garbage collection happens in this area of JVM Memory as well. The Garbage collection in this area is called as “Class GC”. We can disable the Class Garbage Collection using the JVM Option -noclassgc. if  ”-noclassgc” Java Option is added while starting the Server. In that case the Classes instances which are not required will not be Garbage collected.
Native Area:

Native Memory is an area which is usually used by the JVM for it’s internal operations and to execute the JNI codes. The JVM Uses Native Memory for Code Optimization and for loading the classes and libraries along with the intermediate code generation.
The Size of the Native Memory depends on the Architecture of the Operating System and the amount of memory which is already commited to the Java Heap. Native memory is an Process Area where the JNI codes gets loaded or JVM Libraries gets loaded or the native Performance packs and the Proxy Modules gets loaded.
There is no JVM Option available to size the Native Area. but we can calculate it approximately using the following formula:
NativeMemory = (ProcessSize – MaxHeapSize – MaxPermSize)

Features of java

Java Features

  • Platform Independent

The concept of Write-once-run-anywhere (known as the Platform independent) is one of the important key feature of java language that makes java as the most powerful language. Not even a single language is idle to this feature but java is more closer to this feature. The programs written on one platform can run on any platform provided the platform must have the JVM. 
  • Simple

There are various features that makes the java as a simple language. Programs are easy to write and debug because java does not use the pointers explicitly. It is much harder to write the java programs that can crash the system but we can not say about the other programming languages. Java provides the bug free system due to the strong memory management. It also has the automatic memory allocation and deallocation system.
  • Object Oriented

To be an Object Oriented language, any language must follow at least the four characteristics.

Inheritance   :   It is the process of creating the new classes and using the behavior of the existing classes by extending them just to        reuse  the existing code and adding the additional features as needed.
Encapsulation:  :   It is the mechanism of combining the information and providing the abstraction.
Polymorphism:   :   As the name suggest one name multiple form, Polymorphism is the way of providing the different functionality by the 
   functions  having the same name based on the signatures of the methods.
Dynamic binding  :   Sometimes we don't have the knowledge of objects about their specific types while writing our code. It is the way     of providing the maximum functionality to a program about the specific type at runtime.  
As the languages like Objective C, C++ fulfills the above four characteristics yet they  are not fully object oriented languages because they are structured as well as object oriented languages. But in case of java,  it is a fully Object Oriented language because object is at the outer most level of data structure in java. No stand alone methods, constants, and variables are there in java. Everything in java is object even the primitive data types can also be converted into object by using the wrapper class.

  • Robust

Java has the strong memory allocation and automatic garbage collection mechanism. It provides the powerful exception handling and type checking mechanism as compare to other programming languages. Compiler checks the program whether there any error and interpreter checks any run time error and makes the system secure from crash. All of the above features makes the java language robust.

  • Distributed

The widely used protocols like HTTP and FTP are developed in java. Internet programmers can call functions on these protocols and can get access the files from any remote machine on the internet rather than writing codes on their local system.
  • Portable

The feature Write-once-run-anywhere  makes the java language portable provided that the system must have interpreter for the JVM. Java also have the standard data size irrespective of operating system or the processor. These features makes the java as a portable language.

  • Dynamic

While executing the java program the user can get the required files dynamically from a local drive or from a computer thousands of miles away from the user just by connecting with the Internet.

  • Secure

Java does not use memory pointers explicitly. All the programs in java are run under an area known as the sand box. Security manager determines the accessibility options of a class like reading and writing a file to the local disk. Java uses the public key encryption system to allow the java applications to transmit over the internet in the secure encrypted form. The bytecode Verifier checks the classes after loading. 

  • Performance

Java uses native code usage, and lightweight process called  threads. In the beginning interpretation of bytecode resulted the performance slow but the advance version of JVM uses the adaptive and just in time compilation technique that improves the performance. 
  • Multithreaded

As we all know several features of Java like Secure, Robust, Portable, dynamic etc; you will be more delighted to know another feature of Java which is Multithreaded.
Java is also a Multithreaded programming language. Multithreading means a single program having different threads executing independently at the same time. Multiple threads execute instructions according to the program code in a process or a program. Multithreading works the similar way as multiple processes run on one computer.  
Multithreading programming is a very interesting concept in Java. In multithreaded programs not even a single thread disturbs the execution of other thread. Threads are obtained from the pool of available ready to run threads and they run on the system CPUs. This is how Multithreading works in Java which you will soon come to know in details in later chapters.

  • Interpreted

We all know that Java is an interpreted language as well. With an interpreted language such as Java, programs run directly from the source code. 
The interpreter program reads the source code and translates it on the fly into computations. Thus, Java as an interpreted language depends on an interpreter program.
The versatility of being platform independent makes Java to outshine from other languages. The source code to be written and distributed is platform independent.  
Another advantage of Java as an interpreted language is its error debugging quality. Due to this any error occurring in the program gets traced. This is how it is different to work with Java.

  • Architecture Neutral

The term architectural neutral seems to be weird, but yes Java is an architectural neutral language as well. The growing popularity of networks makes developers think distributed. In the world of network it is essential that the applications must be able to migrate easily to different computer systems. Not only to computer systems but to a wide variety of hardware architecture and Operating system architectures as well.  The Java compiler does this by generating byte code instructions, to be easily interpreted on any machine and to be easily translated into native machine code on the fly. The compiler generates an architecture-neutral object file format to enable a Java application to execute anywhere on the network and then the compiled code is executed on many processors, given the presence of the Java runtime system. Hence Java was designed to support applications on network. This feature of Java has thrived the programming language.

The History of Java

History of Java

Two failures

Java was designed by Sun Microsystems in the early 1990s to solve the problem of connecting many household machines together. This project failed because no one wanted to use it.

Then it was redesigned to work with cable TV. This project also failed because the cable companies decided to choose a competing system.


When the World Wide Web became popular in 1994, Sun realized that Java was the perfect programming language for the Web. Early in 1996 (late 1995?) they released Java (previously named Oak) and it was an instant success! It was a success, not because of marketing, but because there was a great need for a language with its characteristics.

Java 1.0, 1.1, and 2 (same as Java 1.2)

Java 1.0 was the first version. Java 1.1 added important changes to user interface management, and many important new classes were added (JDBC, JavaBeans, ...). Java 2 was released at the end of 1998 with important additions to many different parts of Java, but especially with an improved graphical user interface, and many additional packages.


Java 1.0 - 212 classes in 8 packages, released May 1996
Java 1.1 - 503 classes in 23 packages, released Feb 1997
Java 1.2/2.0 - 1,520 classes in 59 packages, released Dec 1998
Java 5.0 - 3562 classes in 166 packages.